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Non-hormonal Contraceptive Methods

(Published July 2013)


1. Finer LB, Henshaw SK. Disparities in rates of unintended pregnancy in the United States, 1994 and 2001. Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2006;38(2):90-6.

2. Guttmacher Institute. Facts on induced abortion in the United States [fact sheet]. May 2011. Available at Accessed June 1, 2012.

3. Nelson AL, Cwiak, C. Combined Oral Contraceptives. In: Hatcher Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W Jr, et al, eds. Contraceptive Technology. 20th revised edition. New York, NY: Ardent Media, 2011, pp 249-251.

4. Secura GM, Allsworth JE, Madden T, et al. The Contraceptive CHOICE Project: reducing barriers to long-acting reversible contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(2):115.e1-7.

5. Mestad R, Secura G, Allsworth JE, et al. Acceptance of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods by adolescent participants in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Contraception. 2011;84:493-8.

6. Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Allsworth JE, et al. Continuation and satisfaction of reversible contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2011;117(5):1105-13.

7. Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception. 2011;83(5):397-404.

8. Guttmacher Institute. Improving contraceptive use in the United States. In Brief. 2008 Series, No. 1, April 2008.

9. Berg CJ, Callaghan WM, Syverson C, Henderson Z. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1998 to 2005. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(6):1302-9.

10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010. MMWR . 2010;59(RR-04):1-86.

11. Lamvu G, Steiner MJ, Condon S, et al. Consistency between most important reasons for using contraception and current method used: the influence of health care providers. Contraception. 2006;63(4):399-403. 

12. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Breaking the Contraceptive Barrier: Techniques for Effective Contraceptive Consultations. Clinical Proceedings. October 2008. Available at Accessed May 15, 2012. 

13. Griffin T, Tooher R, Nowakowski K, et al. How little is enough? The evidence for post-vasectomy testing. J Urol. 2005;174(1):29-36.

14. Kumar V, Kaza RM, Singh I, et al. An evaluation of the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. BJU Int. 1999;83:283-4.

15. Hillis SD, Marchbanks PA, Tylor LR, Perterson HB, for the US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. Poststerilization regret: findings from the United States Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 93:889–95.

16. What is Essure? Accessed May 15, 2012

17. Connor VF. Essure: a review six years later. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16(3):282-90.

18. Revisiting Your Women’s Health Care Visit. Harris Interactive for the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Conducted June 30–July 14, 2004.

19. Sivin I. Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a Copper T IUD for 20 years. Contraception. 2007;75:S70-5.

20. Alvarez F, Brache V, Fernandez E, et al. New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women. Fertil Steril. 1988;49(5):768-73.

21. Wu S, Godfrey EM, Wojdyla D, et al. T380A intrauterine device for emergency contraception: a prospective, multicentre, cohort clinical trial. BJOG. 2010;117(10):1205-10.

22. Dean G, Schwarz EB. Intrauterine contraception. In: Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W Jr, et al, eds. Contraceptive Technology. 20th revised edition. New York, NY: Ardent Media, 2011, pp 147-91.

23. Grimes DA. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection. Lancet. 2000;356(9234):1013-9.

24. World Health Organization. Selected practice recommendations.  Department of Reproductive Health and Research, Family and Community Health Cluster. Geneva: WHO, 2004.

25. Milsom I, Andersson K, Jonasson K, et al. The influence of the Gyne-T 380S IUD on menstrual blood loss and iron status. Contraception. 1995;52:175–9.

26. Milsom I, Rybo G, Lindstedt G. The influence of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD. Contraception. 1990;41(3):271-81. 

27. Larsson G, Milsom I, Jonasson K, et al. The long-term effects of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD. Contraception. 1993;48(5):471-80.

28. Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Diaphragm. Available at Accessed May 15, 2012.

29. Fihn SD, Latham RH, Roberts P, et al. Association between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection. JAMA. 1985;254(2):240-5. 

30. US Food and Drug Association. Medical devices: FemCap. Available at Accessed May 15, 2012.

31. d’Oro LC, Parazzini F, Naldi L, et al. Barrier methods of contraception, spermicides, and sexually transmitted diseases: a review. Genitourin Med. 1994;70(6):410-7.

32. Mauck CK, Weiner DH, Creinin MD, et al. FemCap with removal strap: ease of removal, safety and acceptability. Contraception. 2006;73(1):59-64.

33. Van Damme L, Ramjee G, Alary M, et al.; COL-1492 Study Group. Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2002;360:971-7. 

34. Trussell J, Sturgen K, Strickler J, et al. Comparative contraceptive efficacy of the female condom and other barrier methods. Fam Plann Perspect. 1994;26:66-72.

35. Jones RK, Fennel J, Higgins JA, et al. Better than nothing or savvy risk-reduction practice? The importance of withdrawal. Contraception. 2009;79:407-10.

36. Zuckerman Z, Weiss DB, Orvieto R. Does preejaculatory penile secretion originating from Cowper’s gland contain sperm? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003;20:157-9.

37. The rules of the Billings Ovulation Method™. Accessed May 14, 2012.

38. Jennings VH, Arevalo M. Fertility awareness-based methods. In: Hatcher RA, Trussell J, Nelson AL, Cates W Jr, et al, eds. Contraceptive Technology. 20th revised edition. New York, NY: Ardent Media, 2011, pp 417-34.

39. Creighton Model FertilityCare™ System. What is the CrMS? Available at Accessed May 14, 2012.

40. Sinai I, Lundgren R, Arévalo M, Jennings V. Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning: predictors of correct use. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2006;32(2):94-100.

41. Roddy RE, Cordero M, Cordero C, Fortney JA. A dosing study of nonoxynol-9 and genital irritation. Int J STD AIDS. 1993;4(3):165-70.