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Contraception Journal
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Contraception Highlights June 2012

This month’s featured editorial

Seven billion and 31 gigatons
Suzanne Petroni
pages 523-526
This editorial is adapted from a previous work by the author, “Seven Billion and 31 Gigatons: Making the Population–Climate Connection,” the author's presentation at Reproductive Health 2011, ARHP's annual clinical conference, and “Policy Review: Thoughts on Addressing Population and Climate Change in a Just and Ethical Manner,” which appeared in Population and Environment in 2009 and is cited throughout this editorial. read more >

Review Articles

Contraception for individuals with sickle cell disease: a systematic review of the literature
Lisa B. Haddad, Kathryn M. Curtis, Jennifer K. Legardy-Williams, Carrie Cwiak, Denise J. Jamieson
pages 527-537
While data are limited, there is no evidence to suggest that hormonal contraceptive use among women with sickle cell disease is associated with an increased risk of clinical complications.
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Magnetic resonance imaging and gynecological devices
Lúcia Correia, Ana Beatriz Ramos, Ana Isabel Machado, Duarte Rosa, Carlos Marques
pages 538-543
Presently, there is no scientific evidence that contraindicates performing MRI on women with any kind of gynecological device. Therefore, this procedure is safe as long as it is performed under previously tested conditions.
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Original research articles

Who has second-trimester abortions in the United States?
Rachel K. Jones, Lawrence B. Finer
pages 544-551
Background: Little is known about the characteristics of second-trimester abortion patients.
Conclusions: Black women and those with less education would most benefit from increased availability of first-trimester abortion services.
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Contraceptive sterilization among married adults: national data on who chooses vasectomy and tubal sterilization
John E. Anderson, Denise J. Jamieson, Lee Warner, Dmitry M. Kissin, Ajay K. Nangia, Maurizio Macaluso
pages 552-557
Background: Vasectomy has been found to be a highly cost-effective contraceptive method. For couples, tubal sterilization and vasectomy have the same result, but the two methods are used by different segments of the population.
Conclusions: Efforts to promote vasectomy use need to understand the reasons behind these differences. Increasing the availability and use of vasectomy will require education about its benefits.
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Ibuprofen prophylaxis for levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system insertion: a randomized controlled trial
Julie Chor, Julia Bregand-White, Alex Golobof, Bryna Harwood, Allison Cowett
pages 558-562
Background: Despite the high efficacy of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in preventing pregnancy, uptake of the intrauterine devices remains low in the United States. Decreasing pain at the time of intrauterine device insertion may be one way to increase interest in this method of contraception.
Conclusions: Administration of ibuprofen prophylaxis for LNG-IUS insertion does not decrease pain at the time of insertion.
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History of the Chinese Family Planning program: 1970–2010
Cuntong Wang
pages 563-569
Background: China launched a nationwide family planning program offering birth control methods and family planning services in the 1970s. Promotion of the widespread use of long-term contraceptive methods has been one of the program's core strategies. This paper reviews the history of China's Family Planning Program at the national level from 1970 to 2010. Special attention is paid to the history of contraception policy.
Conclusion: The success of the Chinese Family Planning Program has long been heavily dependent on policies advocated by the central government, including programs promoting contraception to reduce fertility rates. The Program also depended on a logistical support system, including organizational safeguards and free provision of contraception and family planning services.
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Trends in contraceptive use and determinants of choice in China: 1980–2010
Cuntong Wang
pages 570-579
Background: In China, contraception is the most commonly used practice adopted by couples seeking to limit their number of children and to determine the time interval between births. Since 1980, the implementation of mandatory contraceptive strategy has reduced the fertility rate. Using large-scale data from national statistics and nationally representative sample surveys, the current study aims to assess Chinese trends in contraceptive use and determinants of choice from 1980 to 2010 among married women and men aged 20–49 years.
Conclusions: Long-term contraceptive use is still dominant in China. In fact, over the 30-year period (1980–2010) and in comparative world perspective, China continues to have the highest total contraceptive prevalence rate. Additionally, an individual's contraceptive choice is jointly influenced by the strength of family planning policies and individual characteristics.
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Contraceptive care in the VA health care system
Sonya Borrero, Maria K. Mor, Xinhua Zhao, Melissa McNeil, Said Ibrahim, Patricia Hayes
pages 580-588
Background: Little is known about contraceptive care within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of documented contraception by race/ethnicity within the VA and to examine the association between receiving primary care in women's health clinics (WHCs) and having a documented contraceptive method.
Conclusion: Overall contraceptive prevalence in the VA is low, but receiving care in a WHC is associated with a significantly higher likelihood of having a contraceptive method.
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Second- and third-trimester termination of pregnancy in women with uterine scar — a retrospective analysis of 111 gemeprost-induced terminations of pregnancy after previous cesarean delivery
Christian M. Domröse, Annegret Geipel, Christoph Berg, Henning Lorenzen, Ulrich Gembruch, Arne Willruth
pages 589-594
Background: This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the efficacy and safety of using gemeprost for second- and third-trimester termination of pregnancy (TOP) in women with uterine scar due to previous cesarean section.
Conclusions: Gemeprost-induced TOP in the second and third trimester in women with uterine scar due to previous cesarean section is effective and has a low complication rate.
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Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics with a low-dose transdermal contraceptive delivery system, AG200-15: a randomized controlled trial
David F. Archer, Frank Z. Stanczyk, Arkady Rubin, Marie Foegh
pages 595-601
Background: This study evaluated the ethinyl estradiol (EE) and levonorgestrel (LNG) pharmacokinetic profiles of AG200-15, a transdermal contraceptive delivery system, compared with a combination oral contraceptive (COC) containing EE 35 mcg and norgestimate 250 mcg.
Conclusions: EE and LNG daily exposure during AG200-15 treatment was within the range reported for a low-dose COC. The daily EE dose with AG 200-15 was equivalent to a 30-mcg COC and was safe and well tolerated.
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Inhibition of proprotein convertase 5/6 activity: potential for nonhormonal women-centered contraception
Mohamad Aljofan, Harmeet Singh, Huiting Ho, Shuwu Xie, Yan Zhu, Zhaogui Sun, Xiangjie Guo, Jian Wang, Guiying Nie
pages 602-610
Background: Proprotein convertase 5/6 (PC6) is critical for endometrial epithelial receptivity and stromal cell decidualization for embryo implantation in women. We hypothesized that inhibiting PC6 could block implantation for contraception. The aim of this study was to prove this concept using human cell models and rabbits.
Conclusions: This study presents proof of concept that PC6 inhibition has the potential to block embryo implantation, providing nonhormonal contraception for women.
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Letters From The Editor

Update on and correction to the cost-effectiveness of contraceptives in the United States
James Trussell
pages 611
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