Association of Reproductive Health Professionals
Association of Reproductive Health Professionals
Reproductive Health Topics Publications & Resources Professional Education Newsroom Membership Policy & Advocacy About Us
Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians
Send To A Friend Send To A Friend Bookmark this Page Share this page
Fish Consumption to Promote Good Health and Minimize Contaminants

(Published September 2008)

References

  1. Institute of Medicine. Seafood Choices: Balancing Benefits and Risks. Report Brief. October 2006. Accessed February 11, 2008.
  2. Makrides M, Neumann MA, Gibson RA. Is dietary docosahexaenoic acid essential for term infants? Lipids. 1996;31:115–9.
  3. Birch EE, Garfield S, Hoffman DR, Uauy R, Birch DG. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000;42:174–81.
  4. O’Keefe JH, Jr., Harris WS. From Inuit to implementation: omega-3 fatty acids come of age. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75:604–14.
  5. Oomen CM, Feskens EJ, Rasanen L, et al. Fish consumption and coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Italy, and the Netherlands. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151:999–1006.
  6. Harris WS, Isley WL. Clinical trial evidence for the cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2001;3:174–9.
  7. Iso H, Rexrode KM, Stampfer MJ, et al. Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women. JAMA. 2001;285:304–12.
  8. Hu FB, Bronner L, Willett WC, et al. Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women. JAMA. 2002;287(14):1815–21.
  9. US Food and Drug Administration and US Environmental Protection Agency. What You Need to Know About Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. 
  10. American Academy of Pediatrics. Preconceptional and Prenatal Exposures. In: Etzel RA, Balk SJ, editors. Pediatric Environmental Health. 2nd ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 2003:443–58.
  11. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Mercury 1999. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp46.html. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  12. United Nations Environment Programme. Global Mercury Assessment. Chapter 6 : Sources and cycling of mercury to the global environment.
  13. 20report/chapter6.pdf. Accessed Februart 18, 2008.
  14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Office of Research and Development. Mercury Study Report to Congress. Overview. Volume V: Health Effects of Mercury and Mercury Compounds. 2005. Available at: www.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg/t3/reports/merover.pdf. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Environmental Information. 2005 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Public Data Release eReport. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  16. Environmental Protection Agency. National Listing of Fish Advisories.
  17. Food and Drug Administration. Mercury Levels in Commercial Fish and Shellfish.
  18. Grandjean P, Weihe P, White RF, et al. Cognitive deficits in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997;19(6):417–28.
  19. National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury 2000. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  20. Steuerwald U, Weihe P, Jorgensen PJ, et al. Maternal seafood diet, methylmercury exposure, and neonatal neurologic function. J Pediatr. 2000:136(5);599–605.
  21. Murata K, Weihe P, Budtz-Jorgensen E, Jorgensen PJ, Grandjean P. Delayed brainstem auditory evoked potential latencies in 14-year-old children exposed to methylmercury. J Pediatr. 2004:144;177-83.
  22. Mahaffey KR, Clickner RP, Bodurow CC. Blood organic mercury and dietary mercury intake: national health and nutrition examination survey, 1999 and 2000. Environ HealthPerspect. 2004;112(5):562-70.
  23. Jones RL, Sinks T, Schober SE, Pickett M. Blood mercury levels in young children and childbearing-aged women—United States, 1999-2002. MMWR. 2004;53(43):1018-20.
  24. Centers for Disease Control. CDC’s Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. Results by chemical group. July 2005. Accessed February 11, 2008.
  25. DeVoogt P, Brinkman UAT. Production, properties and usage of polychlorinated biphenyls. In: Kimbrough RD, Jensen A (eds). Halogenated Biphenyls, Terphenyls, Naphthalenes, Dibenzodioxins and Related Products. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1989:3–46.
  26. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs). 1998. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp104.html. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  27. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). 2000. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.html. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  28. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Draft Dioxin Reassessment, NAS Review Draft 2003. Available at: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/dioxreass.cfm. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  29. Carpenter DO. Contaminants in farmed salmon from around the world. Available at: www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/forum/2004/presentations/tuesday/carpenter.pdf. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  30. Environmental Protection Agency. Fish Advisories. Available at: www.epa.gov/waterscience/fish/. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  31. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB. Fish intake, contaminants, and human health. Evaluating the risks and the benefits. JAMA. 2006;296(15):1885-99.
  32. Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, Appel LJ, et al. AHA Dietary Guidelines: Revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2000;102:2284-99.
  33. Liebman B. Omega medicine? Is fish oil good for what ails you? Nutrition Action Health Letter. 2007;34(8):1,3-6.
  34. Hibbeln JR, Davis JM, Steer C, Emmett P, et al. Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): an observational cohort study. Lancet. 2007;369(9561):578-85.
  35. Environmental Protection Agency. Mercury Study Report to Congress Volume IV: An Assessment of Exposure to Mercury in the United States. 1997. Available at: www.epa.gov/ttn/oarpg/t3/reports/volume4.pdf. Accessed February 18, 2008.
  36. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, for the Nutrition Committee. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. (Statement of the American Heart Association). Circulation. 2002;106:2747-57.
  37. Hites RA, Foran JA, Carpenter DO, Hamilton MC, Knuth BA, Schwager J. Global assessment of organic contaminants in farmed salmon. Science. 2004;303:226–9.
  38. Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Spiegelman D, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Dietary fat and risk of coronary heart disease in men: cohort follow up study in the United States. Br Med J. 1996:313;94–0.
  39. 38. de Lorgeril M, Renaud S, Mamelle N, et al. Mediterranean alpha-linolenic acid-rich diet in secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. Lancet. 1994:343;1454–9.