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Choosing a Birth Control Method

(Published September 2011)


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2. Guttmacher Institute. Facts on induced abortion in the United States [fact sheet]. May 2011. Available at Accessed June 21, 2011.

3. Guttmacher Institute. Improving contraceptive use in the United States. In Brief. 2008 Series, No. 1 April 2008.

4: Berg CJ, Callaghan WM, Syverson C, Henderson Z. Pregnancy-related mortality in the United States, 1998 to 2005. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(6):1302-9.

5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use, 2010. MMWR . 2010;59:RR-04:1-86.

6. Lamvu G, Steiner MJ, Condon S, et al. Consistency between most important reasons for using contraception and current method used: the influence of health care providers. Contraception. 2006;63(4):399-403.

7. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Breaking the Contraceptive Barrier: Techniques for Effective Contraceptive Consultations. Clinical Proceedings. October 2008. Available at Accessed June 21, 2011.

8. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Method Match. Available at Accessed May 19, 2011.

9. Freeman EW, Borisute H, Deal L, et al. A continuous-use regimen of levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol significantly alleviates cycle-related symptoms: results of a phase 3 study. Fertil Steril. 2005;84:S25.

10. Larsson G, Milsom I, Lindstedt G, et al. The influence of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive on menstrual blood loss and iron status. Contraception. 1992;46(4):327-34

11. Davis A, Godwin A, Lippman J, et al. Triphasic norgestimate ethinyl estradiol for treating dysfunctional dysphoric disorder. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:492-501

12. Burkman R, Schlesselman JJ, Zieman M. Safety concerns and health benefits associated with oral contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190(Suppl):S5-S22.

13. Redmond GP, Olson WH, Lippman JS, et al. Norgestimate and ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 1997;89:615-22.

14. Farmer RDT, Preston TD. The risk of venous thromboembolism associated with low estrogen oral contraceptives. J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;15:195-200.

15. Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Wilson HG, et al. Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2002;346:2025-32.

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17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update to CDC's U.S. Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use, 2010: revised recommendations for the use of contraceptive methods during the postpartum period. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(26):878-83.]

18. Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception. 2011;83(5):397-404.

19. Potter L, Oakley D, de Leon-Wong E, et al. Measuring compliance among oral contraceptive users. Fam Plann Perspect. 1996;28(4):154-8.

20. Dinger JC, Cronin M, Möhner S, et al. Oral contraceptive effectiveness according to body mass index, weight, age, and other factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;201(3):263.e1-9.

21. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. What you need to know: menstrual suppression.. [fact sheet] Available at /uploadDocs/menstruationfactsheet.pdf#search=%22reduce%20menstruation%22. Accessed June 21, 2011.

22. Sulak PJ, Kuehl TJ, Ortiz M, Shull BL. Acceptance of altering the standard 21-day/7-day oral contraceptive regimen to delay menses and reduce hormone withdrawal symptoms. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:1142-1149.

23. Anderson FD, Hait H, Seasonale-301 Study Group. A multicenter, randomized study of an extended cycle oral contraceptive. Contraception. 2003;68:89-96.

24. Kwiecien M, Edelman A, Nichols MD, et al. Bleeding patterns and patient acceptability of standard or continuous dosing regimens of a low-dose oral contraceptive: a randomized trial. Contraception. 2003;67:9-13.

25. Audet M-C, Moreau M, Koltun WD, et al. Evaluation of contraceptive efficacy and cycle control of a transdermal contraceptive patch vs an oral contraceptive. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285:2347-54.

26. Zieman M, Guillebaud J, Weisberg E, et al. Contraceptive efficacy and cycle control with the Ortho Evra/Evra transdermal system: the analysis of pooled data. Fertil Steril. 2002;77(2 Suppl 2):S13-S18.

27. White RH. The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism. Circulation. 2003;107:I-4-I-8.

28. Toglia MR, Nolan TE. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy: a current review of diagnosis and management. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1999;54:29-14.

29. Martínez F, Avecilla A. Combined hormonal contraception and venous thromboembolism. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2007;12(2):97-106.

30. Jick SS, Kaye JA, Russmann S, Jick H. Risk of nonfatal venous thromboembolism in women using a contraceptive transdermal patch and oral contraceptives containing norgestimate and 35 microg of ethinyl estradiol. Contraception. 2006;73(3):223-8.

31. Jick SS, Hagberg KW, Hernandez RK, Kaye JA. Postmarketing study of ORTHO EVRA and levonorgestrel oral contraceptives containing hormonal contraceptives with 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol in relation to nonfatal venous thromboembolism. Contraception. 2010;81(1):16-21.

32.Revisiting Your Women’s Health Care Visit. Harris Interactive for the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Conducted June 30–July 14, 2004.

33. Bjarnadottir RI, Tuppurainen M, Killick SR. Comparison of cycle control with a combined contraceptive vaginal ring and oral levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2002;186(3):389-95.

34. Brunei V, Pontello V, Luisi S, et al. An open-label, multicentre trial to evaluate the vaginal bleeding pattern of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;39(1):65-71.

35. Dieben TO, Roumen FJ, Apter D. Efficacy, cycle control, and user acceptability of a novel combined contraceptive vaginal ring. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100(3):585-93.

36. Zheng SR, Zheng HM, Qian SZ, et al. A randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and bleeding pattern of a (Implanon®) and a six-capsule (Norplant®) hormonal contraceptive implant. Contraception. 1999;60:1-8.

37. Beerthuizen R, van Beek A, Massai R, et al. Bone mineral density during long-term use of the progestogen contraceptive implant Implanon compared to a non-hormonal method of contraception. Hum Reprod. 2000;15(1):118-22.

38. Affandi B. An integrated analysis of vaginal bleeding patterns in clinical trials of Implanon®. Contraception. 1998;58:99S-107S.

39. Flores JB, Balderas ML, Bonilla MC, et al. Clinical experience and acceptability of the etonogestrel subdermal contraceptive implant. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005;90:228-33.

40. Funk S, Miller MM, Mishell DR Jr, et al. The Implanon US Study Group. Safety and efficacy of Implanon, a single-rod implantable contraceptive containing etonogestrel. Contraception. 2005;71(5):319-26.

41. World Health Organization. Selected practice recommendations.  Department of Reproductive Health and Research Family and Community Health. Geneva: WHO, 2004.

42. Westhoff C. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate injection (Depo-Provera®): a highly effective contraceptive option with proven long-term safety. Contraception. 2003;68(2):75-87.

43. Cromer BA, Lazebnik R, Rome E, et al. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial of estrogen supplementation in adolescent girls who receive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(1):42-7.

44. FDA Safety Alert. Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate injectable suspension).

45. Kaunitz AM, Arias R, McClung M. Bone density recovery after depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injectable contraception use. Contraception. 2008;77:67-76.

46. Grimes DA, Schulz KF. Surrogate end points in clinical research: hazardous to your health. Obstet Gynecol. 2005;105(5 Pt 1):1114-8.

47. Walsh JS, Eastell R, Peel NF. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use after peak bone mass is associated with increased bone turnover but no decrease in bone mineral density. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(3):697-701.

48. World Health Organization. WHO statement on hormonal contraception and bone health. 2005. Available at Accessed June 21, 2011.

49. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Gynecologic Practice. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 415: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and bone effects. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112(3):727-30.

50. Nelson AL. Counseling issues and management of side effects for women using depot medroxyprogesterone contraception. J Reprod Med. 1996;41(Suppl 5):391.

51. Thomas DB, Ray RM. Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and risk of invasive adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix. WHO Collaborative Study of Neoplasia and Steroid Contraceptives. Contraception. 1995;52(5):307-12.

52. Gray PH. Reduced risk of pelvic inflammatory disease with injectable contraceptives. Lancet. 1985;1:1046.

53. Lumbiganon P, Rugpao S, Phandhu-fung S, et al. Protective effect of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate on surgically treated uterine leiomyomas: a multicentre case-control study. Br J Obstet Gynecol. 1996;103:909-14.

54. Cullins VE. Noncontraceptive benefits and therapeutic uses of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate. J Reprod Med. 1996;41(5 Suppl):428-33.

55. Mattson RH, Cramer JA, Caldwell BV, et al. Treatment of seizures with medroxyprogesterone acetate: preliminary report. Neurology. 1984;34:1255.

56. Risser WL, Gefter LR, Barratt MS, et al. Weight change in adolescents who used hormonal contraception. J Adolesc Health. 1999;24(6):433-6.

57. Le YL, Rahman M, Berenson A. Early weight gain predicting later weight gain among depot medroxyprogesterone acetate users. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(2, Part 1):279-84.

58. Hatcher RA, Trussel J, Nelson AL, et al. Contraceptive Technology. 19th revised ed. New York, NY: Ardent Media, 2007.

59. Apgar BS, Greenberg G. Using progestins in clinical practice. Am Fam Physician. 2000;62:1849-50.

60. Leeman L. Medical barriers to effective contraception. Obstet Gynecol Clin N Am. 2007;34:19-29.

61. ACOG practice bulletin. Cervical cytology screening. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2003;83(45):237-47.

62. Stewart FH, Harper CC, Ellertson CE, et al. Clinical breast and pelvic examination requirements for hormonal contraception: current practice vs evidence. JAMA. 2001;285:2232-9.

63. ACOG Practice Bulletin no. 109: Cervical cytology screening. ACOG Committee on Practice Bulletins--Gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114(6):1409-20.

64. World Health Organization. WHO Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use. 3rd ed. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2004.

65. Lara-Torre E, Schroeder B. Adolescent compliance and side effects with quick start initiation of oral contraceptive pills. Contraception. 2002;66:81-5.

66. Lopez LM, Newmann SJ, Grimes DA, et al. Immediate start of hormonal contraceptives for contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Apr 16;(2):CD006260.

67. Planned Parenthood Federation of America. What to do if the ring slips out or you make a mistake using it. Available at; Accessed June 21, 2011.

68. Mayo Clinic. Ortho Evra (contraceptive patch): what you can expect. Available at Accessed June 21, 2011.

69. Sivin I. Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a copper T IUD for 20 years. Contraception. 2007;75:S70-5.

70. Alvarez F, Brache V, Fernandez E, et al. New insights on the mode of action of intrauterine contraceptive devices in women. Fertil Steril. 1988;49(5):768-73.

71. Jonsson B, Landgren B-M, Eneroth P. Effects of various IUDs on the composition of cervical mucus. Contraception. 1991;43:447.

72. Wu S, Godfrey EM, Wojdyla D, et al. T380A intrauterine device for emergency contraception: a prospective,multicentre, cohort clinical trial. BJOG. 2010;117(10):1205-10.

73. Sivin I, Stern J, Coutinho E, et al. Prolonged intrauterine contraception: a seven-year randomized study of the levonorgestrel 20 mcg/day (LNg 20) and the Copper T380 Ag IUDS. Contraception. 1991;44(5):473-80.

74. Grimes DA. Intrauterine device and upper-genital-tract infection. Lancet. 2000;356(9234):1013-9.

75. Milsom I, Andersson K, Jonasson K, et al. The influence of the Gyne-T 380S IUD on menstrual blood loss and iron status. Contraception. 1995;52:175–179.

76. Milsom I, Rybo G, Lindstedt G. The influence of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD. Contraception. 1990;41(3):271-81.

77. Larsson G, Milsom I, Jonasson K, et al. The long-term effects of copper surface area on menstrual blood loss and iron status in women fitted with an IUD. Contraception. 1993;48(5):471-80.

78. Hidalgo M, Bahamondes L, Perrotti M, et al. Bleeding patterns and clinical performance of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena) up to two years. Contraception. 2002;65(2):129-32.

79. Gemzell-Danielsson K, Inki P, Boubli L, et al. Bleeding pattern and safety of consecutive use of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS)--a multicentre prospective study. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(2):354-9.

80. Hubacher D, Grimes DA. Noncontraceptive health benefits of intrauterine devices: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2002;57:120-8.

81. Inki P, Hurskainen R, Palo P, et al. Comparison of ovarian cyst formation in women using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system vs. hysterectomy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2002;20(4):381-5.

82. Van Damme L, Ramjee G, Alary M, et al.; COL-1492 Study Group. Effectiveness of COL-1492, a nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel, on HIV-1 transmission in female sex workers: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:971–7.

83. Hatzell T, Feldblum PJ. The female condom: beyond acceptability to public health impact. Sex Transm Dis. 2001;28(11):655-7.

84. Trussel J, Sturgen K, Strickler J, et al. Comparative contraceptive efficacy of the female condom and other barrier methods. Fam Plann Perspect. 1994;26:66-72.

85. Planned Parenthood Federation of America. Diaphragms. Available at Accessed May 20, 2011.

86. Russell J, Ellertson C. Efficacy of emergency contraception. Fertility Control Reviews. 1995;4:8-11.

87. Fihn SD, Latham RH, Roberts P, et al. Association between diaphragm use and urinary tract infection. JAMA. 1985;254(2):240-5.

88. Food and Drug Association. Medical devices: FemCap. Available at Accessed May 23, 2011.

89. d’Oro LC, Parazzini F, Naldi L, et al. Barrier methods of contraception, spermicides, and sexually transmitted diseases: a review. Genitourin Med. 1994;70(6):410-7.

90. Mauck CK, Weiner DH, Creinin MD, et al. FemCap with removal strap: ease of removal, safety and acceptability. Contraception. 2006;73(1):59-64.

91. Roddy RE, Cordero M, Cordero C, Fortney JA. A dosing study of nonoxynol-9 and genital irritation. Int J STD AIDS. 1993;4(3):165-70.

92. Jones RK, Fennel J, Higgins JA, et al. Better than nothing or savvy risk-reduction practice? The importance of withdrawal. Contraception. 2009;79:407-10.

93. Zuckerman Z, Weiss DB, Orvieto R. Does preejaculatory penile secretion originating from Cowper’s gland contain sperm? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003;20:157-9.

94. Sinai I, Lundgren R, Arévalo M, Jennings V. Fertility awareness-based methods of family planning: predictors of correct use. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2006;32(2):94-100.

95. Griffin T, Tooher R, Nowakowski K, et al. How little is enough? The evidence for post-vasectomy testing. J Urol. 2005;174(1):29-36.

96. Kumar V, Kaza RM, Singh I, et al. An evaluation of the no-scalpel vasectomy technique. BJU International. 1999;83:283-4.

97. Hillis SD, Marchbanks PA, Tylor LR, Perterson HB, for the US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group, Poststerilization regret: findings from the United States Collaborative Review of Sterilization, Obstet Gynecol. 1999; 93:889–895.

98. What is Essure? Available at Accessed June 21, 2011.

99. Adiana Permanent Contraception Procedure.

100. Connor VF. Essure: a review six years later. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2009;16(3):282-90.

101. Vancaillie TG, Anderson TL, Johns DA. A 12-month prospective evaluation of transcervical sterilization using implantable polymer matrices. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112(6):1270-7.

102. Next Choice physician labeling. Corona, California: Watson Pharma, Inc. June 2009. Available at Accessed May 24, 2011.

103. Gold MA, Wolford JE, Smith KA, et al. The effects of advance provision of emergency contraception on adolescent women’s sexual and contraceptive behaviors. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2004;17(2):87-96.

104. von Hertzen H, Piaggio G, Ding J, et al. Low dose mifepristone and two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a WHO multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2002;360:1803-10.

105. Plan B One Step prescribing information. Pomona, New York: Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. August 2009. Available at Accessed May 24, 2011.

106. Fine P, Mathé H, Ginde S, et al. Ulipristal acetate taken 48-120 hours after intercourse for emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(2 Pt 1):257-63.

107. ACOG. Practice Bulletin No. 112: Emergency contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;115(5):1100-9.

108. Ellertson C, Ambardekar S, Hedley A, et al. Emergency contraception: randomized comparison of advance provision and information only. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;98(4):570-5.

109. Dada OA, Godfrey EM, Piaggio G, von Hertzen H; Nigerian Network for Reproductive Health Research and Training. A randomized, double-blind, noninferiority study to compare two regimens of levonorgestrel for emergency contraception in Nigeria. Contraception. 2010;82(4):373-8;

110. Cheng L, Gülmezoglu AM, Piaggio G, et al. Interventions for emergency contraception. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(2):CD001324.

111. Glasier AF, Cameron ST, Fine PM, et al. Ulipristal acetate versus levonorgestrel for emergency contraception: a randomised non inferiority trial and meta analysis. Lancet.2010;375:555-62.

112. Wu S, Godfrey EM, Wojdyla D, et al. T380A intrauterine device for emergency contraception: a prospective,multicentre, cohort clinical trial. BJOG. 2010;117(10):1205-10.